Term Definition
Government by the people, either by them directly, or through elected representatives (REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY). Commonly used in a broader sense: a society which favours equal rights, freedom of speech, a fair trial and tolerates the views of minorities.
The process of removing or simplifying legal and administrative constraints on the economy and entrepreneurial activity – often with the intent of allowing markets to operate more freely and smoothly and hence to become more efficient or with the intent of opening up new areas of trade. Deregulation is different from liberalization because a liberalized market, while often having fewer and simpler regulations, doesn’t preclude the possibility of strict regulation in order to
A process whereby power is transferred from a central authority (eg, a government) and vested in a regional or local authority (eg, a municipal council).
DIRECT DEMOCRACY refers to a system whereby CITIZENs influence government directly (ie, not only through elections). Plebiscites / referendums / constitutional initiatives (USA) are the instruments of DIRECT DEMOCRACY. They may be consultative (a government is not obliged to act) or mandatory (a government must put the CITIZENs’ decision into effect). Cf, REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY.

Compiled and edited by Dr. Stefan Melnik, a senior advisor to the Friedrich Naumann Foundation as well as political communication trainer, editor and author of many books on liberalism. Names of outside contributors are respectively mentioned under the terms.

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